Liquid glucose comprises of a combination of many
saccharides such as glucose, maltose, maltodextrin and other oligosaccharides. Liquid
glucose is also called glucose syrup, obtained from starch. The different
sources of starch are maize, potatoes, wheat, barley, rice and cassava.
1. Preparation: The
first step is the preparation of starch for the conversion to glucose. The
plant material is ground to remove fiber and protein.
2. Soaking: The
starch is soaked in water to allow it to swell so that enzymes act on it.
3. Gelatinization: This
is heated to gelatinize the starch. The intermolecular bonds are broken down allowing
more water to soak the starch.
4. Hydrolysis: Using
acid hydrolysis or enzyme hydrolysis, liquid glucose is prepared. A-amylase and
y-amylase are used to break the starch into different oligosaccharides and then
broken into glucose molecules.
5. Clarification: After
hydrolysis, the syrup is cleaned of impurities.